Factors Relating to Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy: An Integrative Review
Keywords:Anemia, Iron deficiency anemia, Pregnancy.
Introduction: Anemia is a condition in which the blood's hemoglobin concentration is abnormally low as a result of the lack of one or more essential nutrients. Caused by iron deficiency, this condition can impair the mental and psychomotor development, reduce the individual's work performance, reduce resistance to infection and cause increased maternal and child morbidity and mortality. In pregnant women, the causes for the development of this anemic context are varied and include a nutritional deficiency and hormonal problems related to the menstrual cycle and endometrial and pregnancy complications.
Objective: Identifying the factors associated with iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy.
Method: This is an integrative literature review. The databases were consulted LILACS and PubMed. It used the descriptors: anemia, iron deficiency anemia, pregnant and pregnancy. The results were obtained through the selection of 06 articles through a detailed reading and then data were organized in frames summaries.
Results: Anemia during pregnancy is not caused by an isolated factor and should be treated as a problem of different causes. The factors related to iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy, referred to by the authors were: socio-economic, with reports in three articles; obstetric, mentioned by five analyzed products; and health indicators in four articles. All the evidence has been proven statistically by multivariate analysis with logistic regression model or linear, except for one study, whose analysis was univariate.Conclusion: We can see the need to prioritize the socio-economic condition of the poorest populations in the planning of public policies and the need for a more effective prenatal care as a primary goal to reduce the gestational anemia index, including active search of these women in the community. Health education is also relevant, parallel to the improvement of health conditions of the population.
World Health Organization (WHO). Iron deï¬ciency anaemia: assessment, prevention, and control. A guide for programme managers. Geneva; 2001.
JordÃ£o RE, Bernardi JLD, Barros Filho AA. PrevalÃªncia de anemia ferropriva no Brasil: uma revisÃ£o sistemÃ¡tica. Rev Paul Pediatr. 2009; 27 (1): 90- 8. DOI: 10.1590/S0103-05822009000100014
Batista Filho M, Souza AI, Bresani CC. Anemia como problema de saÃºde pÃºblica: uma realidade atual. CiÃªnc. SaÃºde Coletiva. 2008; 13 (6): 1917-22. DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232008000600027
Mendes KDS, Silveira RCCP, GalvÃ£o CM. RevisÃ£o integrativa: mÃ©todo de pesquisa para a incorporaÃ§Ã£o de evidÃªncias na saÃºde e na enfermagem. Texto Contexto Enferm. 2008; 17 (4): 758-64. DOI: 10.1590/S0104-07072008000400018
El Dib RP. Como praticar a medicina baseada em evidÃªncias. J Vasc Bras. 2007; 6 (1): 1-4, 2007. DOI: 10.1590/S1677-54492007000100001
Ursi ES. PrevenÃ§Ã£o de lesÃµes na pele no perioperatÃ³rio: revisÃ£o integrativa de literatura [DissertaÃ§Ã£o]. SÃ£o Paulo: Universidade de SÃ£o Paulo; 2005.
Tran TD, Biggs B-A, Tran T, Casey GJ, Hanieh S, Simpson JA, et al. Psychological and Social Factors Associated with Late Pregnancy Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Rural Viet Nam: A Population-Based Prospective Study. PLoS One. 2013; 8(10): e78162. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078162
Ãlvarez IV, Ãguila JDF, MartÃnez MA, Vicente OM, Alfonso TG. Anemia y deficiencia de hierro en embarazadas de un Ã¡rea urbana del municipio Cienfuegos. Rev Cubana Obstet Ginecol. 2006; 32 (1): 1-8. [Acesso em: 27 mai 2015]. DisponÃvel em: <http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0138-600X2006000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso>.
Vitolo MR, Boscaini C, Bortolini GA. Baixa escolaridade como fator limitante para o combate Ã anemia entre gestantes. Rev. Bras. Ginecol. Obstet. 2006; 28 (6): 331-9. DOI: 10.1590/S0100-72032006000600003
Ferreira HS, Moura FA, Cabral Junior CR. PrevalÃªncia e fatores associados Ã anemia em gestantes da regiÃ£o semi-Ã¡rida do Estado de Alagoas. Rev. Bras. Ginecol. Obstet. 2008; 30 (9): 445-51. DOI: 10.1590/S0100-72032008000900004
Camargo RMS, Pereira RA, Yokoo EM, Schirmer J. Factors associated with iron deficiency in pregnant women seen at a public prenatal care service. Rev. Nutr. 2013; 26 (4): 455-64. DOI: 10.1590/S1415-52732013000400007
Fujimori E, Sato APS, AraÃºjo CRMA, Uchimura TT, Porto ES, Brunken GS, et al. Anemia em gestantes de municÃpios das regiÃµes Sul e Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Rev Esc enferm USP. 2009; 43(2): 1202-7. DOI: 10.1590/S0080-62342009000600010
Rodrigues LP, Jorge SRPF. DeficiÃªncia de ferro na gestaÃ§Ã£o, parto e puerpÃ©rio. Rev. Bras. Hematol. Hemoter. 2010; 32 (2): 53-56. DOI: 10.1590/S1516-84842010005000057
Costa CM, Brum IR, Lima ES. Anemia e marcadores sÃ©ricos da deficiÃªncia de ferro em grÃ¡vidas atendidas na rede pÃºblica municipal de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. Acta Amaz. 2009; 39 (4): 901-6. DOI: 10.1590/S0044-59672009000400018
Calderon IMP, Cecatti JG, Vega CEP. IntervenÃ§Ãµes benÃ©ficas no prÃ©-natal para prevenÃ§Ã£o da mortalidade materna. Rev. Bras. Ginecol. Obstet. 2006; 28(5): 310-5. DOI: 10.1590/S0100-72032006000500008
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution LicenseÂ that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open AccessÂ and Benefits of Publishing Open Access).