A Possible Phytol-cytoprotective Trait through Reactive Species-Induced Oxidative Stress Ebbing Pathway


  • Md. Torequl Islam
  • José Victor de Oliveira Santos
  • José Roberto de Oliveira Ferreira
  • João Marcelo de Castro e Sousa
  • Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz
  • Ricardo Melo de Carvalho
  • Ana Maria Oliveira Ferreira da Mata
  • Leonardo da Rocha Sousa
  • Rosália Maria Tôrres de Lima
  • Milena Braga Soares da Silva
  • Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar
  • Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira
  • Sandra Maria Mendes de Moura Dantas
  • Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante




Brine Shrimp, Cytotoprotective, Oxidative Stress, Phytol, Toxicity


This study aims at investigating a possible pathway of cytotoxicological status of the diterpenoid essential oil, phytol (PYL). For this brine shrimp lethality bioassay (BSLB) and hemolysis (HL) test systems were selected. In the BSLB, PYL either alone or co-treated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), potassium di-chromate (K2Cr2O7; KD), copper sulphate (CuSO4.5H2O; CS) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox, TRO) as membrane lyser, strong oxidizer, oxidizer-cytogenotoxicant and antioxidative-cell-protestant, respectively. The HL was carried out in rat erythrocytes (RBCs) taking TRO as a standard. In addition, to view a time-dependent cytotoxic activity of PYL, the mortality of the shrimps was counted at 24 and 48 h. Results suggest PYL is non-cytotoxic at low (40-160 µM) but toxic at high concentration (2-8 mM) to the shrimps and RBCs. An increased cytotoxicity was observed for 24 h to 48 h in brine shrimps. In both cases groups co-treated with cytotoxicants/protestant suggest that PYL is cytoprotective in the presence of oxidizer. The cytoprotectivityof PYL may be connected to its antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity for antioxidant-mediated pro-oxidative effects. In conclusion, PYL is cytoprotective at low concentration but toxic at high, activities found, however, may be linked to the radical scavenging pathway






Toxicology & Therapeutics

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