Thymoquinone is Knocking at the Door of Clinical Trial
This review aimed at summarizing the therapeutic potentials in a mechanistic context of a vastly studied quinone, naturally derived product from the seed oil of Nigella sativa called thymoquinone (TQ). The proposed underlyng mechanism may be attributed to its lowdose-mediated antioxidative effect while pro-oxidative at high doses. The TQ is able to form unstable and stable redox compounds in the presence of a variety of internal or external factors such as light, pH, catalyst. Antioxidant-mediated cytoprotectivity while pro-oxidative effect mediated cytotoxicity are the features of TQ with the possibility of redox balancing capacity. In addition, induced autophagy with the redox balancing potential may be a novel consideration in the cancer chemotherapy. Up to date investigated therapeutic potentials of TQ are- antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, immunomodulatory, neuro-, gastro-, cardio-, hepato- and nephroprotective. It also imparts beneficial effects in oral hygene, metabolic disorders, diabetes (especially type 2), reproductive and respiratory tract disorders, fibrosis, bone formation and decay. TQ needs clinical trial reports, despite of having a massive animal model data, combinatorial effects with some currently used chemotherapeutic agents as well as action against resistant antibiotics making TQ interesting. TQ should be taken into pharmaceutical account as a novel drug to be developed for clinical trials.
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