Electroencephalogram in Intensive Care Unit
Introduction: The electroencephalogram (EEG) is the electrophysiological recording of synaptic activation of a lot of pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex. The applicability of the EEG in the diagnostic investigation of central nervous system diseases (CNS) such as epilepsy was readily established and widespread.
Objectives: Know the main findings and EEG indications in a intensive care unit, trace the epidemiological profile of ICU patients, and correlate EEG findings to possible changes in therapy.
Method: Descriptive and retrospective study conducted in the ICU of Hospital Medical Center Maranhense analyzing all EEG conducted from October 2011 to October 2012.
Results: 35 EEG were analyzed in 29 patients. Of these patients, 1758.6% were male and 12-41.4% were female. In our study we found that the cerebrovascular accident was the clinical condition most often observed, corresponding to 28.5% (brain hemorrhagic stroke - 17.1% and ischemic stroke - 11.4%), followed by traumatic brain injury (17.1%), severe sepsis (17.1%), other causes (14.3%), toxic-metabolic encephalopathy (11.4%), and Status epilepticus (11.4%). Coma was present in (11.4%) and only 2.9% had EEG to assess post-PCR. We found a disorganized background activity (35 - 100%), the asymmetrical pattern is found in 21 (60%) and symmetrical in 14 (40%) The presence of epileptiform discharges was identified in 12 (34.2%). A change of therapy occurred in 8 (22.9%) patients who underwent electroencephalographic examination.
Conclusion: We note that the indications responsible for electroencephalographic monitoring on the edge of the bed were frequently altered level of consciousness and seizures. Before electroencephalographic patterns analyzed by the study, we realized that in all tests the background activity was disorganized and there was a significant incidence of epileptiform discharges.
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