Prevalence of Elevated Arterial Pressure and Associated Risk Factors in 10 to 15 Year Old Students from the Municipality of Cajazeiras-PB, Brazil
Title: Prevalence of Elevated Arterial Pressure and Associated Risk Factors in 10 to 15 Year Old Students from the Municipality of Cajazeiras-PB, Brazil.
Background: Overweight and obesity are rising on developing countries among all age groups. Children and adolescents are, therefore, exposed to higher risk of developing hypertension. Early identification can help avoiding or lessening complications through the life span. In order to plan adequate prevention programs, cities need to identify the prevalence of such condition. We aimed to identify the prevalence of Elevated Arterial Pressure (EAP) and associated factors in students from the municipality of Cajazeiras-PB, Brazil, a region in the Northeast of Brazil.
Methods and Finding: At this cross-sectional study, in 2011, we measured arterial pressure of 690 children and adolescents from both genders, age 10 to 15-year-old, following the parameters recommended by the Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. We measured sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and hemodynamic variables. In the statistical analysis, we used the software SPSS 18.0. The significance level was established as p≤.05. In our total sample 55.4% were female, and the mean age was 12.8 + 1.4 years. Prevalence of EAP was 3.5% and it was associated with large waist circumference, overweight, experience of hunger, and tobacco exposure. The prevalence of systolic and diastolic hypertension were 2.5% and 1.7%, respectively. In a logistic regression we observed that subjects exposed to tobacco were 2.65 times more likely to have EAP (95% CI: 1.021 - 6.861), when compared to their not exposed peers. Those that ever experienced hunger had an odds ratio of 3.73 to present EAP (95% CI: 1.134 - 12.256).
Conclusions: The prevalence of EAP was within the average observed in previous studies at this age group. Routinely monitoring of arterial pressure is important to early identification of EAP in this population. Stake holders in the state of Paraiba, Brazil, should include this monitoring in the protocol of pediatric visits in public health facilities.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access and Benefits of Publishing Open Access).