Assessment of the Craniofacial and Cervical Parameters using standardized photography in individuals with Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to use standardized digital facial photography to investigate craniofacial and cervical characteristics of individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the possible associations between these characteristics and polysomnographic data.
Material and methods: The final sample included 50 individuals with OSA (Apnea Hypopnea Index - AHI > 5) and 10 controls (AHI < 5). All subjects underwent a history and physical examination with measurements of anthropometric parameters and overnight polysomnographic records. Anthropometric assessment and standardized frontal-profile facial photographs were performed prior to polysomnography.
Results: Higher AHI was associated with alterations in the cervical area, where the neck circumferences were significantly increased. We observed an interaction between the craniofacial and anthropometric variables with the polysomnographic variable. Specifically, when there was increased superior facial third (P=0.032), inferior facial third (P=0.039) and cervical circumference (P=0.050), there was a greater chance of having AHI over 5.
Conclusions: Using craniofacial measurements in standardized photographs and anthropometric measurements, the vertical facial pattern and the neck circumference are the strongest predictors of OSA.
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