Factors Relating to Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy: An Integrative Review
Introduction: Anemia is a condition in which the blood's hemoglobin concentration is abnormally low as a result of the lack of one or more essential nutrients. Caused by iron deficiency, this condition can impair the mental and psychomotor development, reduce the individual's work performance, reduce resistance to infection and cause increased maternal and child morbidity and mortality. In pregnant women, the causes for the development of this anemic context are varied and include a nutritional deficiency and hormonal problems related to the menstrual cycle and endometrial and pregnancy complications.
Objective: Identifying the factors associated with iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy.
Method: This is an integrative literature review. The databases were consulted LILACS and PubMed. It used the descriptors: anemia, iron deficiency anemia, pregnant and pregnancy. The results were obtained through the selection of 06 articles through a detailed reading and then data were organized in frames summaries.
Results: Anemia during pregnancy is not caused by an isolated factor and should be treated as a problem of different causes. The factors related to iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy, referred to by the authors were: socio-economic, with reports in three articles; obstetric, mentioned by five analyzed products; and health indicators in four articles. All the evidence has been proven statistically by multivariate analysis with logistic regression model or linear, except for one study, whose analysis was univariate.Conclusion: We can see the need to prioritize the socio-economic condition of the poorest populations in the planning of public policies and the need for a more effective prenatal care as a primary goal to reduce the gestational anemia index, including active search of these women in the community. Health education is also relevant, parallel to the improvement of health conditions of the population.
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