Early Childhoodâ€™s Antibiotic Use and Risk of Allergic Diseases
This review considers the knowledge on the colonization of the infantâ€™s gut with beneficial bacteria starting from early days of life. This colonization drives the developing, but immature, immune system of the infant though the local, intestinal, well-regulated, immune mechanisms, to tolerogenic immune response and â€œno-diseaseâ€ state. This response in characterized by TH1 predominance. Any a perturbation of this homeostasis by environmental factors such as antibiotics, â€œswings backâ€ the immune response towards TH2 response, increasing the propensity to develop allergic inflammation, and clinical allergic diseases. There is emerging evidence to support the role of intestinal microbiota in developing allergic disease.
At clinic level, there is vivid research to determine role of antibiotics exposure in developing allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, eczema, and food allergy. The results of studies appear as if they are inconsistent or even conflicting. However, this inconsistency seems to be related to some methodological factors in evaluating the host, exposure, outcome and confounders. Still, the three is clear evidence that antibiotic exposure during prenatal period, infancy, or early childhood is associated with high risk of allergic diseases and asthma during infancy, childhood or early adolescence.Â This risk is governed by individualâ€™s genetic background & place of residence, type and dose of antibiotics. It is quite important to remember, that antibiotics exposure or use is only one of the risk factors of increased risk of allergy among children and does not exclusively account for this rise.
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