Antibacterial agents and innate immunity
AbstractOn their own, antibacterial agents cannot cure an infectious disease. They needÂ help from the innate immune response followed by the adaptive immune responseÂ and inflammatory response. An overview of Toll-Like Receptors (TLR) as key playersÂ in the innate immune response is given followed by a review of published resultsÂ obtained in the authors laboratory related to the effect of several antibacterialÂ agents on the action of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a ligand for TLR-4.Â The results indicated that the antibacterial agents tested were anti-inflammatory.Â Inflammation is a two edged sword; in moderation it is beneficial, but deleteriousÂ if in excess. It is suggested that infectious disease specialists monitor serum proinflammatory cytokine and/or nitric oxide levels of their patients on antibacterialÂ therapy and when needed, treat with a cytokine, a TLR agonist or a TLR antagonistÂ where indicated.Antibacterial agents on their own are not capable of eradicating infections efficiently. Help coming from the patientâ€™s innate immune response followed by theÂ adaptive immune response and inflammatory response is needed. This has beenÂ observed in patients with immunodeficiency diseases such as X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia, Chronic Granulomatous Disease and CD40 Ligand Deficiency (1).Â Treatment of these patients with antibacterial agents might temporarily control theÂ infection. However, recurrencesâ€™ always occur.
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