Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (blaKPC-2) in members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in Palestine
Background: The global spread of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has limited the physicians’ antimicrobial treatment options of infected patients. CRE’s which carry the Klebsiella pneumonia Carbapenemase (blaKPC) resistance mechanism have been rapidly spreading in many parts of the world, and have been responsible for high patients’ morbidity and mortality.
Methods: Two protocols recommended by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were followed to detect CRE’s in Palestine. In addition, the antimicrobial sensitivity patterns for several antibiotic classes were determined for the isolated CRE’s by the disc diffusion method according to the clinical and laboratory standard institute (CLSI) M100-S22 guidelines. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of the carbapenem, ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem were determined for all the CRE’s by E-test. The isolates β-lactam resistance mechanisms were further investigated by analyzing 31 different types of β–lactamase genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results: Four bacterial isolates, 3 Enterobacter cloacae and 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae, were determined to be non-susceptible to one or all of the carbapenems (ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem) tested. All isolates which carried the blaKPC-2 gene showed an extreme drug resistance profile. These isolates were resistant to all β-lactam antibiotics, co-trimoxazole and gentamicin, while susceptible to only amikacin and colistin sulfate. Different combination of plasmid encoded b–lactamase genes (blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA-1, blaMIR-1, blaGES-23 and blaKPC-2) were present in these isolates. Of interest, was the isolation of the first E. cloacae strains co-producing the blaKPC-2 and a novel blaGES-23 β-lactamase.
Conclusions: The presence of all these plasmid encoded b-lactamase in Palestine is alarming and mandates actions to be taken to control antibiotics usage and the activation of hospital infection control programs in order to prevent the spread of these extremely drug resistant bacteria.
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