A Ten Years Study of The Rates and Resistance Trends of the ESKAPE Bacteria Isolated from Sterile Body Sites (2010 – 2019) at a Single Hospital


  • Jamal Wadi Al Ramahi M.D, FIDSA Office 11, The Medical Center, Jordan Hospital and medical Center. 29 Adeeb Wahbeh StreetAmman - Jordan 11118
  • Walid Jamal University of Jordan, School of Medicine




ESKAPE, Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae, Carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa, Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, resistance trends, Extended-spectrum β-lactamases producers



To assess the rates and trends of resistance among ESKAPE pathogens during 2010 – 2019.


A retrospective, single-center study between 2010 –2019, non-duplicate isolates from six sterile sources were studied. Pathogens were processed through the  automated VITEK-2. The Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints were referenced. The aim was to detect the rates and resistance trends of the ESKAPE pathogens, the rates of  ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, and the carbapenem-resistant (CR)-K. pneumoniae, CRAb, CRPa, VRE, and MRSA for the inpatients. Trends for the prevalence and resistance rates were analyzed by linear regression. Missing values were averaged based on the neighboring values. Data analysis was by SPSS version 25, and statistical significance is considered for one-tailed P < 0.05.


The ESKAPE bacteria (4286 isolate) comprised (45.57%) of the inpatients' isolates, the sterile sources consisted of 1421 (33.15%): K. pneumonia 272 isolates, the ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae significantly declined (Pearson R - 0.877, P = 0.001), CR-K. pneumoniae showed no significant trends (P = 0.475). P. aeruginosa 202 isolates; resistance to carbapenem (CRPa) averaged 42%. S. aureus 198 isolates; MRSA rates averaged 45%. A. baumannii 165 isolates; carbapenem-resistance (CRAb) average 93%. Vancomycin-resistant (VR)E. Faecium = 33%, and VRE. faecalis = 15% with a weighted average 17%. Enterobacter spp. resistance rates were: Amikacin 3.6%, Third and fourth generation cephalosporines 28% and 20% respectively, Quinolones 27% ± 3%, Piperacillin/tazobactam resistance 29%, Imipenem 15%, and Meropenem 27.


The ESKAPE pathogens were highly resistant, making treatment more complicated, and compromise the initial empiric treatment.


Author Biography

Jamal Wadi Al Ramahi M.D, FIDSA, Office 11, The Medical Center, Jordan Hospital and medical Center. 29 Adeeb Wahbeh StreetAmman - Jordan 11118

Adjunct, Assistant Professor of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine. University of Jordan

Chairman, The Infection Prevention and Control Committee. Al Khalidi Hospital and Medical Center.


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