Comparative study of antimicrobial prescribing pattern between Nepal and Pakistan


  • Muhammad Umer Nadeem University College of Pharmacy, University of the Punjab, Lahore
  • Ram Bahadur Dhami University College of Pharmacy, University of the Punjab, Lahore
  • Krishna Prasad Dahal
  • Devi Ram Pokharel
  • Anil Kumar Singh
  • Imdad Hushain Khan
  • Nibandha Prasad Chaulagai
  • Bimal Gharti Magar
  • Balika Acharya
  • Inaam Ur Rehman
  • Zikria Saleem Department of pharmacy, University of the Lahore, Pakistan.



Antimicrobial prescription, Prophylaxis Pakistan, Nepal, Antimicrobial prescription, Prophylaxis Pakistan, Nepal, Prophylaxis Nepal, Pakistan



The purpose of this cross-sectional study conducted in different private and public sector hospitals of the major cities of Nepal and Pakistan was to compare and evaluate the antibiotic prescribing patterns.


 The data was collected based on prescriptions received from different hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan and Kathmandu, Nepal without much interaction with the patients.


Out of a total of 272 patients, 111 (40.8%) patients from Nepal and 161 (59.19%) patients from Pakistan were prescribed with 447 antibiotics. In both countries, out of total antibiotics prescribed, 42.30% were 3rd generation cephalosporins. Also, in Pakistan and Nepal, out of all the indications, 49.2% of the antibiotics were given in medical prophylaxis.


 In Pakistan, the antimicrobial prescription rate is comparatively higher than Nepal, and in both countries, there is a need of proper implementation of antibiotic prescribing guidelines for the prescription of antibiotics and the administration of antibiotics in medical prophylaxis.


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