Overuse of antibiotics as a key driver to antibiotic resistance in Morocco: A short review with potential solutions

Authors

  • Amine Ousaid Doctor
  • Jaouad Akrim
  • Youssef Khayati

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3823/843

Keywords:

Antibiotic Resistance, Overuse of Antibiotics, Morocco

Abstract

Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge, which has accelerated by the overuse of antibiotics worldwide. Increased antimicrobial resistance is the cause of severe infections, complications, longer hospital stays and increased mortality. Steps must be taken to reverse the damage that has already been done and prevent further resistance from developing. This work will examine the context and societal situations that led to this acceptance of antibiotic overuse and misuse seen in both health care professionals and the public, the biochemical and genetic pathways that allow a microbe to develop drug resistance, the consequences that could follow if this trend of antibiotic overuse is allowed to continue and the various methods and solutions that have been suggested to prevent and reverse this problem.

References

World Health Organization (WHO). Antimicrobial resistance,

cited 4 Apr 2019. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/

detail/antimicrobial-resistance

Moghnieh AR, Zeina A Kanafani A Z, Tabaja ZH, Sharara LS,

Awad SL, Kanj SS. Epidemiology of common resistant bacterial

pathogens in the countries of the Arab League. Lancet Infect Dis

; (12): e379-e394.

WHO. Global antimicrobial resistance surveillance system

(GLASS) report, 2018. http://www.who.int/glass/resources/

publications/early-implementation-report.

Michael CA, Dominey-Howes D, Labbate M. The antimicrobial

resistance crisis: causes, consequences,and management. Front

public Heal. Frontiers Media SA 2014; 2: 145

Ackerman S, Gonzales R. The context of antibiotic overuse. Ann

Intern Med 2012; 157(3):211-212

Arason VA, Sigurdsson AJ. The problems of antibiotic overuse.

Scand J Prim Health Care 2016; 28(2): 65-66.

Llor C, Lars Bjerrum L Antimicrobial resistance: Risk associated

with antibiotic overuse and initiatives to reduce the problem.

Ther Adv Drug Sa 2014; 5(6): 229-241.

Levy, Stuart B, 2002. The antibiotic paradox: How the misuse

of antibiotics destroys their curative Power. Cambridge, MA:

Perseus Publication, USA.

Hhm H, Ma M, Jin G, Jin Y, Khalifa I, Zeng Q, et al. Virulence

factors of staphylococcus aureus isolated from korean pork

bulgogi: Enterotoxin production and antimicrobial resistance.

Korean J Food Sci An 2015; 35(4): 502-506.

Lashley, R. Felissa and Jerry D. Durham,2002. Emerging

infectious diseases: Trends and issues. New York: Springer

Publication, USA.

Schmidt, Michael A, 2009. Beyond antibiotics: Strategies for

living in a world of emerging infections and antibiotic-resistant

bacteria. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books,USA.

Shallcross, Laura J, and Dame Sally C Davies. (2014). Antibiotic

overuse: A key driver of antimicrobial resistance. Brit J Gen Pract

; 64(629): 604-605.

Huttner B, Harbarth S. Antibiotics are not automatic anymore’

the French national campaign to cut antibiotic overuse. PLoS

Medicine 2009; 6(6: e1000080.

Mainous AG 3rd, Hueston WJ, Love MM, Evans ME, Finger R.

(2000). An evaluation of statewide strategies to reduce antibiotic

coveruse. Fam Med 2000; 32(1): 22-915.

McKenna, John, 2014. Anti-Biotics: Are they curing us or killing

us? Dublin: Gill and McMillan, England

Shallcross LJ, Dame SC D. Antibiotic overuse: A key driver of

antimicrobial resistance. Br J Gen Pract; 2014; 64(629): 604-605.

Sahreena L, Kunyan Z. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus

aureus: Molecular Characterization, Evolution, and

Epidemiology. Clin Microbiol Rev 2018; 31 (4).

Foster TJ. Antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

Current status and future prospects. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2017;

; 41(3):430-449.

Holger S, Breitrück A. Clostridium difficile - From Colonization

to Infection. Front. Microbiol 2018; https://doi.org/10.3389/

fmicb.2018.00646.

Zerouali K, Ramdani-Bouguessa N, Boye C, Hammami A& The

Active 2 Group. Multicentric study in five African countries of

antibiotic susceptibility for three main pathogens: Streptococcus

pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas

aeruginosa, J Chemother 2016; 28: 266-272.

Zorgani A, Almagatef A, Sufya N, Bashein A, Tubbal A. Detection

of CTX-M-15 Among Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated

from Five Major Hospitals in Tripoli, Libya. Oman Med J. 2017;

(4): 322-327.

Mathlouthi N, Al-Bayssari C, El Salabi A, Bakour S, Ben Gwierif

S, Zorgani AA, Jridi Y, Ben Slama K, Rolain JM, Chouchani

C. Carbapenemases and extended-spectrum β-lactamases

producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from Tunisian and Libyan

hospitals. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2016; 2; 10(7):718-27.

Yahiaoui M, Robin F, Bakour R, Hamidi M, Bonnet R, Messai

Y. Antibiotic resistance, virulence, and genetic background

of community-acquired uropathogenic Escherichia coli from

Algeria. Microb Drug Resist 2015; 21: 516-26.

Abujnah A, Zorgani A, Sabri M, El-Mohammady H, Khalek R,

Ghenghesh K. Multidrug resistance and extended-spectrum

β-lactamases genes among Escherichia coli from patients with

urinary tract infections in northwestern Libya. Libyan J Med

; 10: 26412.

Mansour W, Grami R, Ben Haj Khalifa A, et al. Dissemination of

multidrug-resistant blaCTX-M-15/IncFIIk plasmids in Klebsiella

pneumoniae isolates from hospital- and community-acquired

human infections in Tunisia. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;

: 298-304.

Alem N, Frikh M, Srifi A, et al. Evaluation of antimicrobial

susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains isolated in Rabat

University Hospital (Morocco). BMC Res Notes 2015; 8: 392.

Arhoune B, Oumokhtar B, Hmami F, et al. Rectal carriage

of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- and carbapenemaseproducing

Enterobacteriaceae among hospitalised neonates in a

neonatal intensive care unit in Fez, Morocco. J Glob Antimicrob

Resist 2017; 8: 90-96.

Barguigua A, El Otmani F, Talmi M, et al. Prevalence and

genotypic analysis of plasmid-mediated β-lactamases among

urinary Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in Moroccan community.

J Antibiot 2013; 66: 11-16.

Hanane El Hafa, Kawtar Nayme, Najia El Hamzaoui, Itto

Maroui, Mohammed Sbiti, Khalid Zerouali K. Dissemination of

carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains carrying

the blaGES, blaNDM and blaOXA23 in Morocco. Germs. 2019;

(3): 133-141.

Natoubi S, Barguigua A, Zerhouni N, et al. First report of an

OXA-58 carbapenemase producing Acinetobacter baumannii

isolated from urinary tract infection in Morocco. Afr J Urol.

; 23:66-7.

Bonomo AR, Burd ME, Conly J, Limbago MB, Poirel L, Segre AJ,

et al. Carbapenemase-Producing Organisms: A Global Scourge

Clin Infect Dis. 2018; 66(8): 1290-1297.

Elias C, Moja L, Mertz D, et al. Guideline recommendations and

antimicrobial resistance: the need for a change. BMJ Open 2017;

: e016264.

Battin, M. Pabst. (2009). The patient as victim and vector: Ethics

and infectious disease. New York: Oxford UP,USA.

CDC. Antibiotic Use in the United States, 2017: Progress and

Opportunities. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and

Human Services, CDC.

Downloads

Published

2020-05-12

Issue

Section

Articles