The Etiology of Viral Lower Respiratory Tract Infections at a Tertiary Hospital in Jordan over Five Years


  • Isam Bsisu School of Medicine, University of Jordan
  • Zaina Obeidat
  • Nidaa Ababneh
  • Mai Altous
  • Mohammed Obeidat
  • Mousa Amer
  • Mona Freihat
  • Hanan Khalil
  • Randa Farah
  • Rasha Bsisu
  • Maisa Mansour
  • Azmi Mahafzah
  • Nathir Obeidat



Respiratory Tract Infection, Pneumonia, Acute Bronchitis, LRTI



Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is the most common condition treated in primary care and is considered the third leading cause of death worldwide. The objective of our study is to determine the etiological agents that cause viral LRTI in Jordan, aiming to help physicians to choose the appropriate treatment strategy.

Materials and Methods

We conducted a retrospective study on patients who were admitted with the diagnosis of LRTI between January, 2011 and January, 2016. We used Fast-track Diagnostics (FTD)® Respiratory 21 Kit (Fast-track Diagnostics, Luxembourg) real-time PCR to determine the viral etiology of LRTI, and we investigated pandemic H1N1 2009 swine flu virus using rapid test PCR.


This study involved 495 patients with a mean age of 57.79 ± 18.43 years. The causative agents were identified in 157 patients out of 495 patients (31.7%). FTD real-time PCR was done for 170 patients, and the test was positive for seasonal Influenza A virus in 7.1% of patients, influenza B in 4.1%, RSV in 4.7%, metapneumovirus in 4.1%, adenovirus in 4.1%, corona 229E/NL63 in 4.1%, parainfluenza virus in 7.6%, and rhinovirus in 3.5%. The percent of cases who were positive for pandemic H1N1 2009 swine flu virus was 4.2%. The rate of ICU admission was 16.8%, and the mortality rate of LRTI was as low as 3.64%.


Viral LRTI is more common in winter season in Jordan, especially in January. Remarkably, Influenza A and Parainfluenza viruses were the main viral causative agents for LRTI in our study.


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