High Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance among Gram Negative Bacteria Isolated from Poultry
Background: Multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR), such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. are threat to the human health care system. In recent years, these MDR bacteria have been found increasingly inside and outside the hospital environment. Food animals (meat and poultry) are increasingly colonized with MDR bacteria, thus posing an additional concern. This study is intended to determine susceptibility and resistance pattern of pathogenic Gram negative bacteria isolated from rectal swabs of chicken against 16 antibiotics.
Methods: A total of 216 cloacal swab samples (Gaza strip poultry farms) and 87 frozen and fresh meat samples (from slaughter houses and retails) from June 2017 to June 2018 were collected. Isolation and identification of organisms were achieved using standard bacteriological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed according to standard protocols.
Results: 360 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, and 56 Gram-negative non fermenter were recovered. The predominant Enterobacteriaceae isolate was Citrobacter spp. (22.6%), followed by Enterobacter spp. (17.6%) and E. coli (16.5%). High rates of resistance against Ampicillin (85.4%) and Trimethoprim/ Sulfamethoxazole (80.1%) followed by Chloramphenicol (74%) were recorded. Six samples were positive for Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. Of the tested Enterobacteriacae isolates, 94.7% were multidrug resistant (MDR), and 31.4% of None fermenting bacilli (NFB) were MDR. Carbapenem resistance was found to be high among isolates; 51.9% for imipenem and 1.8% for meropenem.
Conclusion: Isolated bacteria in the study area were MDR and this suggests that chickens may be important reservoir of antimicrobial resistant organisms which is a major public health concern.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access and Benefits of Publishing Open Access).
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.
Articles are published Under License of Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License ©
Copyright policies & self-archiving
|Author's Pre-print:||author can archive pre-print (ie pre-refereeing)|
|Author's Post-print:||author can archive post-print (ie final draft post-refereeing)|
|Publisher's Version/PDF:||author can archive publisher's version/PDF|