Characterization of resistance genes to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins (MLS) among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in North Lebanon
Background. – Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most significant pathogens causing significant morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the incidence of MLS-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections continues to grow globally.
Objective. – The aim of this study is to examine the expression of resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates to MLS and the prevalence of genes involved in this resistance by PCR.
Methods. – 38 strains of S. aureus MLS-resistant (resistant at least for one macrolide) were isolated in the sector of microbiology at Nini Hospital in North Lebanon. The disk diffusion method was used to determine the phenotype of the MLS resistance. The resistance genes involved were detected by PCR using specific gene primers for ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA, linA, mefA, vat and vgb genes.
Results. – A total of 55.3% of the isolates were positive for inducible phenotype (iMLSB), 15.8% for the constitutive phenotype (cMLSB), 23.7% for MSB phenotype and 5.2% for L phenotype. The ermC gene was the most prevalent (52.6%), while ermA, ermB, msrA and linA genes were observed with lower prevalence. However, a combination of several of these genes was detected. The vgb, vat and mefA genes were not detected in any of the clinical isolates.
Conclusion. – To our knowledge, this study is the first investigation regarding characterization of MLS resistance genes in clinical isolates of S. aureus in Lebanon. The study revealed a high prevalence of the inducible resistance to lincosamides (iMLSB phenotype) and the most prevalent resistance determinants was ermC.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access and Benefits of Publishing Open Access).
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.
Articles are published Under License of Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License ©
Copyright policies & self-archiving
|Author's Pre-print:||author can archive pre-print (ie pre-refereeing)|
|Author's Post-print:||author can archive post-print (ie final draft post-refereeing)|
|Publisher's Version/PDF:||author can archive publisher's version/PDF|