Clostridium difficile : Infection, diagnosis and treatment with antimicrobial drugs : A review article
Keywords:C. difï¬cile, Infection, Diagnosis, Antimicrobial drugs
Clostridium difï¬cile infection (CDI) is increasing problem in healthcare, associated with high incidence, mortality, and costs in hospitalized patients.Â Dramatic increases in the incidence and severity of healthcare-associatedÂ C. difficileÂ infection have occurred since the last decade, including elderly population, young adults, pregnant females, infants and children. C. difï¬cile infections are mainly linked to the prolonged use of wide-spectrum antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microbiota equilibrium. Toxigenic strains of C. difï¬cile commonly produce two clostridial toxins, toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), to which disease symptoms are attributed. Few strains of C. difï¬cile may also produce another more powerful binary toxin associated with high fatality. The clinical manifestations of infection with toxin-producing strains of C. difï¬cile range from symptomless carriage, to mild or moderate watery-bloody diarrhea, and few percentage developed fulminant and sometimes fatal pseudomembranous colitis. Complications that have been associated with CDI include dehydration, electrolyte disturbances, toxic megacolon, bowel perforation, hypotension, renal failure, systemic inï¬‚ammatory response syndrome, sepsis, and death. The most important step in treating CDI is immediately discontinuing use of offending antimicrobial drug. BothÂ metronidazole and vancomycin are equally effective for the treatment of mild CDI, but vancomycin is superior for treating patients with severe C. difï¬cile disease. Recently, fidaxomicin proved to be superior to other drugs in treatment of patients who are at high risk for CDI relapse.
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